The only order theory -incomplete- that we have as of now comes from the Systems Theory, and essentially from the Theory of Interaction, a branch of it that describes the dynamics of systems. If there is a theory of everything, that is the systems theory. Because everything that can be named is just… a system.
Conversely, we need to say that there is no chaos theory. Trying to explain something that doesn’t exist is like trying to classify all the non-called-Brutus domestic animals. Chaos is the lack of existence, of order, and that is enough -for now-. The second law of thermodynamics is not an approach of chaos, but entropy. In other words, is a knowledge of how systems tend to get into chaos. In proper terms, is a formal approximation to dissipation. Dissipation is the decomposition of a system.
For example, think on a human, living body. Now, imagine there is a failure on the liver. That fact generates contamination on the rest of the body and if the failure is persistent, eventually the individual dies. We can say that not only the liver tend to be excluded from the body, but all organs. In proper terms, all the organs start dissipating. Not only the system dissipates, but also each organ, and each part, each cell, until reaching even the molecular dissipation. A lot of H 2 O? molecules dissipate in isolated hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Eventually all subsystems get dissipated until the atomic level. In this example, the origin of all this dissipation was the failure of the liver. The second law of thermodynamics provide a very precise description of this entropy increase, not about the final chaos. After a long time, when the body has dissipated almost completely, chaos exists for that former system. We can say that the body that we were observing is in chaos. What is the theory of that chaos? Which distance have the atoms covered after decomposition? Are the molecules part of new systems? Ah, no, that would be order. I repeat, there is no chaos theory. When you read an something on the Internet that mentions the Chaos Theory, it is just something that some curious has written after listening the term in other Internet page. Or is an attempt to get your attention and sell you something.
But chaos has a very interesting meaning when we talk about order. Despite what common people thinks, chaos is just the opposite of order. As said, entropy is just the increase of chaos, therefore the decrease of order, therefore, a dissipation process. Things are that simple.
The concept of order you need to get into your mind is this: order is the existence of interaction between two systems in some specific dimension. Therefore, chaos is the lack of dimensional interaction.
Mmm. New terms. But they are simple: an interaction is an exchange of something between two systems, or an action and a reaction between them.
So, when you talk with somebody about religion, you get in some order with that person: you are exchanging ideas about religion. In what dimension? In the conversational one. In the realm of ideas, also. In the dimension of intellectual people, also. A dimension is just an space of properties. Beautiful, hah?
At this point you are confused. You’ve ordered your desk and it seems that what we are talking is not related to order. You see a line of dots in your pants motifs, they are aligned and in order, but they seems not to be in a dimension or realm. They are just ordered dots… Yes. We can explain all kinds of order.
Here we go with the order on your desk. We can say that your desk is in order if everything is in its place. My personal desk is in order when everything that I need is in the borders, so I can work. Maybe for you that is different. Your desk may be in order when you see only three things on top: the telephone, a pencil and a notebook. Beautiful: this means that order can be subjective. You provide a definition of order that is not the same as mine, so, I can see order and you can see chaos on a desk at the same time! So, in the dimension of your concepts, there is chaos on a desk. On the dimension of my concepts, there is order on the same desk. Order and chaos can coexist over the same set of systems.
Which is the interaction here? Under your concepts dimension, the interaction takes place into your mind: each object interacts with the desk using your concept to get the final result: it follows order or not. The same in my case.
But how can that order be compatible with the nice red dots aligned and in order you see in your trousers? They are just dots, but in your mind, they are interacting in pairs. The first interaction occurs between the first pair of dots: the first is red and is equal to the second, which is also is red. And backwards: the second is red, and that color is shared by the first one, also red. The same interaction occurs between the second and the third, etc. What if there is five dots aligned, but the only the central one is blue? They have changed the order in colors, you can choose to say they are in chaos. Maybe an english individual can see red and blue dots on a white surface and think they are in order: those are the colors of his flag. The interactions are similar: The mind processes quickly the color of each dot and compares it to the colors of the flag. So, each dot interacts with the flag in his mind.
Another example of order: A friend of mine has four sons. Each one lives in a different country. In her mind, there is an order about them: each son was born from her. She makes the following interaction inside her mind: Joe is my son, I am her mother. Tom is my son and I am her mother. And so on with Pete and Mac. So, the four sons follow an order in her mind. In that dimension, what does she think about Gandhi? Simple: Gandhi is not my son and I am not her mother.
So, I repeat: order is the existence of interaction in some dimension. And we’ll add a new definition: Existence is provided by interaction. Again, beautiful. But… what existence? If you see Joe, Tom, Pete and Mac, you will see some order (they have the same boldness). But you will not see the order that my friend sees: Just by seeing them you cannot know that they are brothers. The family exists in the mind of my friend. And after I knew them, in my mind. The family exists in their minds, in our minds, due to the interactions we’ve described. But out of us, of our mind, of our mental dimension, there is no family, just some similar cells. So, a family does not really exist. It is a subjective concept. It is a creation of our minds. But that’s enough for humans. Thinking that something exists is enough.
There is an interesting case here. We start loving persons of the opposite sex and start changing our behavior, to have more interaction in different dimensions with them. So we create an order in our minds: She is attracted to me and I’m attracted to her. I already see the family there, even if they didn’t agreed on becoming a couple or if they didn’t say “I love you”. The link already exists in their minds, but normally has different names. They may say something like “Would you like to be my girlfriend?” -“Yes!”. Since that moment, they change the name of the interaction in their minds. But it is just a name. Bacterias and fluids can have been already interchanged months ago.
So, we can get confused with names, but the interaction creates existence. In this case, a new couple has been created. From a very low level of interaction -they were just classmates- until they start sharing the coffee and spending more time, interactions have increased. Not only in dimensions, but also in quantity. They talk often about religion, for example. So, there is a new molecule on the universe: a couple. And that is not only mental. They help each other, they exchange a lot of things, even glasses because they have the same measure and taste. So, the couple exists as long as there is interaction. If they break, this molecule dissipates and they enter into chaos.
One last example of order and existence: Your liver interacts in several ways with your brain and they keep you alive. They also interact with all your other organs with the same purpose. Not only that: they interact as a whole with the environment to keep you alive. If your liver fails, you dissipate.
There is a lot of additional concepts around order and chaos. You can read more about interaction and order in http://ydor.org.
Some concepts not studied here: order can be measured in sets over specific dimensions. All the principles of interaction apply to all systems in universe, from formulas in a paper to galaxies or quantum entities (the subjectivity approach will probably hit hard on quantum physics… did you know that there are things that are not logical in quantum mechanics? the cause of that could be our faith in objectivity). Interaction is non-linear: a strong stimulus from one system can cause a very soft reaction from the other and viceversa. In consequence, there are no null amount reactions. Reactions can be very, very soft, but never zero. So, you are interacting with all african trees right now, and if you move a finger, you can have pulled one of the triggers of the terrorist bomb that will explode on a year in some country in war. Please do not move your finger too much.. Oh, that also has strong consequences… Just forget it. After an interaction has occurred, every interactor gets a final result: a net increase of chaos or order. So we say that an interaction is positive or negative for a system. The active purpose of interacting in living beings is to continue existing, a capability called perstability, the capability of persisting along time. Non-living entities may exist if they perform continued positive interactions. Perstability applies also to them. Therefore perstability is to all systems what life is to living entities. In that case, we descend naturally from rocks, not from monkeys.